Henry VIII, opens a brand new windowopens a brand new window by Hans Holbein / Public Area
Elizabeth the First of England, typically referred to as Gloriana, had a dangerous path to the throne. Her father was King Henry VIII of England – an enormous, red-haired man who appreciated to joust and feast. He additionally appreciated the women. For a few years, he was principally content material together with his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, a Spanish princess who occurred to be the widow of his brother, Arthur. Henry and Catherine had a daughter named Mary, however no different youngsters lived to maturity. On Henry’s demise, Mary was subsequent in line to inherit the throne. Henry very a lot needed a robust son to hold on his dynastic identify and maintain the dominion protected as daughters have been perceived as being weaker than sons and fewer capable of rule independently.
Anne Boleyn, opens a brand new windowopens a brand new window by Hans Holbein / Public Area
Since, after a few years of marriage, Catherine hadn’t given Henry the son he needed, he determined he would get his marriage annulled so he might marry another person. He had his eye on a younger lady at his courtroom named Anne Boleyn. If his marriage have been annulled, it might be the identical as if it had by no means taken place within the eyes of the regulation and the Catholic Church. As a trustworthy Catholic, he could not annul his marriage on his personal. He needed to ask the Pope’s permission, and the Pope wouldn’t give it, as Catherine had been true to her marriage vows for a few years.
At this similar time in Germany and different elements of Europe, a motion befell referred to as the Protestant Reformation. Individuals similar to Martin Luther, a former German priest, needed to start out new church buildings the place the Pope and the established Church hierarchy had no say. Henry determined that he would begin a church additionally, referred to as the Church of England. The King was the top of this church. One of many first issues he did was to grant himself a divorce from Catherine. This made his daughter Mary illegitimate and subsequently not eligible for the throne – until he had no different male heirs.
When Henry took cost of his new church, he removed the previous methods. No extra monasteries. These wealthy buildings, lands and what they produced went to the King and the King’s trustworthy lords. No extra Catholic clergymen. No extra plenty presided over by Catholic clergymen. English residents who have been devoutly Catholic of their beliefs hated these new guidelines and sometimes attended plenty in secret, even underneath menace of dire punishment. The wealthier households may create hiding locations for the clergymen of their manor homes referred to as clergymen’ holes.
Queen Elizabeth I of England, opens a brand new windowopens a brand new window by Unknown / Public Area
Henry misplaced no time in marrying his second spouse. On September 7, 1533, now-queen Anne Boleyn gave him a daughter named Elizabeth who ought to have crammed him with delight. However, she was a daughter, and that wasn’t ok for Henry. He removed Anne – she stood trial for adultery, was convicted and beheaded – and the king married once more. And once more. And once more. In all, Henry VIII had six wives. Spouse quantity three, Jane Seymour, did give Henry a son earlier than she died of childbed fever. However younger Prince Edward was by no means very wholesome.
When Henry VIII lastly died in 1547, younger King Edward was decided to maintain the nation Protestant as his father had decreed it. Throughout his brief rule, his father’s new church – the Church of England – stopped saying its providers in Latin and adopted a brand new English-language prayer ebook, The Guide of Widespread Prayer, which made the Catholics – whose conventional providers have been stated in Latin – even much less completely happy.
Mary I, opens a brand new windowopens a brand new window by English Faculty after H. Eworth, opens a brand new windowopens a brand new window / Public Area
When 15-year-old Edward died in 1553, Mary, Catherine of Aragon’s daughter, turned the brand new ruler. She was decided to show England utterly again to Catholicism – regardless of the price. She was so ruthless in placing to demise Protestants who opposed her that she earned the nickname Bloody Mary. She hoped to maintain the nation Catholic by marrying Prince Philip of Spain, however it was to not be. Though they did wed, Philip and Mary had no youngsters, and in 1558 Mary died. Her single sister, Elizabeth, turned queen. Regardless of her father’s (and far of the courtroom’s) misgivings, she was a robust queen who led England via troublesome days – however there was loads of blood on her palms as nicely, together with that of her cousin, Mary – Queen of Scots.
1509 – Henry VII (First Tudor monarch) dies
His son, Henry VIII, turns into king
Henry VIII’s wives:
1509-1533 Catherine of Aragon (Annulled/lived – youngster Mary, later Mary I)
1533-1536 Anne Boleyn (Annulled/beheaded – baby Elizabeth, later Elizabeth I)
1536-1537 Jane Seymour (Died of childbirth problems – youngster Edward, later Edward VI)
1540-1540 Anne of Cleves (Annulled/lived)
1540-1541 Catherine Howard (Beheaded)
1543-1547 Catherine Parr (Survived Henry and remarried)
1547 – Henry VIII dies
Edward VI turns into king
1553 – Edward VI dies
Woman Jane Gray turns into queen
1553 – Queen Jane is overthrown after 9 days, and Mary I (Edward’s half-sister) turns into queen. She marries Prince Philip of Spain in 1554. No youngsters.
1558 – Mary I dies
Elizabeth I (her half-sister) turns into queen
1587 – Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, is put to dying on Elizabeth’s order
1588 – The destruction of the Spanish Armada is a serious English victory.
1603 – Elizabeth I dies and not using a direct inheritor
James I (James VI of Scotland and son of Mary, Queen of Scots) turns into king of England. He’ll survive two plots to dethrone him in his first yr alone – however he’ll rule till 1625.
Elizabeth determined to not persecute the Catholics until they tried to overthrow her rule. In 1563, a compromise was struck (The Thirty-9 Articles) which allowed some measure of spiritual freedom for Catholics.
Plots and Treachery
Mary, Queen of Scots, opens a brand new windowopens a brand new window by After Nicholas Hilliard / Public Area
There have been these, together with the King of Spain and the Pope in Rome in addition to Catholic English residents, who needed to show England again right into a Catholic nation. They supported Mary Stuart’s, also referred to as Mary, Queen of Scots, efforts to overthrow Elizabeth and take the English throne as nicely. Some English Catholics remained loyal to Elizabeth whereas others joined the rebels. Ultimately, Elizabeth imprisoned Mary the Scottish queen and had her put to dying, together with others who have been judged to be traitors to the Crown.
The Queen’s Favorites: The Gypsy, the Dragon, and Others
Though she by no means married and was by no means confirmed to have any vital romantic pursuits, Elizabeth did have her favorites. They have been males of intelligence, ambition, and daring who swore to serve the Queen – whereas additionally serving their very own pursuits.
Robert Dudley Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, opens a brand new windowopens a brand new window by Attributed to Steven van der Muelen, opens a brand new windowopens a brand new window / Public Area, Earl of Leicester (pronounced “Lester”), had a variety of affect with Elizabeth. From the time she got here to the throne in 1558 till his dying in 1588, he was her “pricey Robin.” Elizabeth gave him beneficiant presents of lands and cash. Considered one of her most trusted ministers, William Cecil (Lord Burghley), disliked Leicester intensely for his affect on the Queen. On Lord Burghley’s deathbed, he warned the queen of “the gypsy’s” evil affect. Dudley acquired alongside higher with Francis Walsingham, one other minister who was often known as the Queen’s spymaster. Dudley’s hopes to marry Elizabeth have been by no means realized, and ultimately, he married elsewhere. His stepson, Robert Devereux (Earl of Essex), turned one other younger favourite of the getting older queen. As his star was fading and one other’s rose, Essex made some treasonable overtures to King James VI of Scotland (Mary, Queen of Scots’ son). He was came upon, tried, and executed.
Sir Walter Raleigh, opens a brand new windowopens a brand new window by Unknown
At their first assembly, Sir Walter Raleigh famously unfold his nice cloak over a puddle so the queen needn’t get her ft moist. She was intrigued with the good-looking soldier from Devon who spoke intelligently of politics. He stayed at courtroom for a few years and made an enemy of the Earl of Leicester, who was jealous of his affect with the queen. He was additionally enemies with the Earl of Essex. Raleigh (additionally spelled Ralegh) turned very wealthy from the queen’s presents and the booty from his privateering (piracy with permission from the Crown). Raleigh was knighted in 1585 for his plans to discovered a colony within the New World, which he had already named Virginia after Elizabeth, “the Virgin Queen.” In later years, he fell from favor at courtroom. He then looked for the fabled El Dorado, the town of gold, however he by no means discovered it. Elizabeth’s successor, King James I (son of Mary, Queen of Scots), imprisoned him for 15 years and ultimately executed him.
Sir Francis Drake, opens a brand new windowopens a brand new window by Marcus Gheeraerts the Youthful, opens a brand new windowopens a brand new window / Public DomainSir Francis Drake was one other soldier/sailor from Devon. He and Captain Hawkins got down to prey upon the Spanish fleet to make up for his or her losses when the Spanish destroyed a few of their vessels in Spanish America. He and the opposite “sea hawks” introduced Elizabeth a lot gold from Spanish ships. In 1577, he set sail on the Golden Hind (also referred to as the Pelican) and sailed the world spherical, by way of the Pacific. When he got here house to England in 1580, his ship laden with spices from the East and Spanish gold, the Spanish ambassador demanded that he and his crew be hanged as pirates. Elizabeth declared that the Spanish had handled English ships in a lot the identical method. Moreover, she declared that English ships had a proper to sail anyplace! She made positive the Spanish received her level by knighting Francis Drake, whom the Spanish now referred to as “El Draque” (the dragon). He was a commander when Spain tried to invade England by sea. The defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 started England’s lengthy interval of sea dominance the world over.
The Renaissance in England
Elizabeth’s lengthy reign was by and enormous peaceable and affluent at house. She inspired not solely native industries but in addition the humanities. She was a patron of a younger playwright named William Shakespeare. He carried out and wrote performs as a part of a gaggle referred to as The Lord Chamberlain’s Males, who constructed their very own Globe Theatre in 1597. Different well-known writers included Christopher Marlowe, Ben Jonson, Edmund Spenser, and Sir Francis Bacon. By the top of Elizabeth’s reign, England’s literacy price had grown massively: 30 % general and 60 % for Londoners. The world was really opening for England and her residents. Throughout the Atlantic, England’s enlargement into the New World introduced a promise of freedom for these English residents who nonetheless felt fettered by the Previous World’s methods of faith, society, and politics.
When she died finally in 1603, she handed her throne on to the James, the Protestant son of Mary, Queen of Scots. James ordered the creation of the Authorised King James’ Model of the Bible, a brand new English translation for Protestant worshippers. He was considerably tolerant of Catholicism till the Gunpowder Plot of 1605 by which Man Fawkes and different Roman Catholic conspirators tried to explode Parliament. James’ rule can be the beginning of a brand new dynasty, the Stuart Dynasty.
If the Gunpowder Plot conspirators had had their method, the subsequent ruler would both have been Isabella, daughter of King Philip II of Spain, or probably Arbella (Arabella) Stuart, a cousin to each Elizabeth and James. Arbella lived in England, and, although she had little interest in the throne, she was arrested and imprisoned within the Tower of London simply in case somebody may attempt to put her there. She died in jail of an sickness introduced on by her starvation strike. They laid her lead coffin on prime of Mary, Queen of Scots’.
For those who like your historical past interpreted on movie, take a look at the video record:
CRRL Picks: Tudor Monarchs on Movie
Again when monarchs dominated very almost completely, the scramble for the throne performed out over an extended recreation of probability, romance, intrigue, and often violence. Most of those movies are based mostly on books.
This movie, starring Cate Blanchett and Joseph Fiennes, is a dramatization of the Elizabeth Tudor’s adolescence. Its sequel is Elizabeth, the Golden Age.
Elizabethopens a brand new window
This PBS presentation, hosted by historian Dr. Suzannah Lipscomb, reenacts passages within the lives of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn at unique locales.
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A dramatization based mostly on the story of the nine-days-queen, starring younger actors Helena Bonham Carter and Cary Elwes.
Woman Janeopens a brand new window
When Henry VIII breaks his ties with the Catholic Church, he calls for Sir Thomas Extra, the Chancellor of England, aspect with him. Sir Thomas has a case of conscience. Winner of a number of Academy Awards.
A Man for All Seasonsopens a brand new window
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When you take pleasure in studying historical past as tales, peruse these novels that includes the daring and harmful characters from Tudor occasions.
CRRL My Librarian: Completely Tudor
The Tudor Royals introduced new ranges of affluence and high-stakes intrigue to the English courtroom. The rewards have been dazzling, however the penalties for missteps lethal – whether or not you have been in line for the throne or simply a part of his or her internal circle.
Anne of Cleves had so much going towards her. As Henry’s rejected fourth spouse, stranded in a overseas courtroom the place she did not converse the language properly, she might do with all the buddies she might get. Sadly, two ladies who’re near her are hassle. Younger and lovely and flirty, Katherine Howard catches the previous king’s eye. Jane Rochford, however, is a queen of spies. Her testimony despatched her husband and her cousin Anne Boleyn to their deaths. Now, she is advising Anne of Cleves.
The Boleyn Inheritanceopens a brand new window
Earlier than her beloved 15-year-old prince of a husband dies, he makes his younger spouse promise – to marry his brother. The lifetime of Henry VIII’s first spouse, Catherine of Aragon, is explored by best-selling novelist Philippa Gregory.
The Fixed Princessopens a brand new window
This one is filled with wealthy element because it follows Sir Walter Ralegh’s rise and fall from royal favor. It types a trilogy with The Succession and Entered from the Solar.
Demise of the Foxopens a brand new window
Woman Jane Gray (“the 9 Days Queen”) had a brief and troublesome life. Her mom and father used her to additional their very own ambitions, however she was a considerate and discovered younger woman with a robust character – and a life that may finish all too quickly.
Harmless Traitoropens a brand new window
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