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Walk Through History . . . Caroline Street

Walk Through History . . . Caroline Street

By the Fredericksburg Space Tourism Division

130 Caroline
Constructed c. 1855. The type and design of this Greek Revival townhouse are equivalent to its neighboring duplexes, though this can be a single household dwelling. In depth modifications have altered the architectural similarities shared with 132-138. Observe bay window and wing additions.

132,134,136,138 Caroline
Constructed 1855. These Greek Revival townhouses are mirror photographs of one another and share comparable architectural options. A photograph by the famed Civil Conflict photographer, Matthew Brady, exhibits the structural injury 132 and 134 suffered in the course of the Battle of Fredericksburg within the winter of 1862. The homes have been occupied by troopers all through the warfare and nonetheless include proof of their presence. The partitions of 136 retain artillery fragments in addition to signatures of Union troopers who occupied the home. An unique wall in 138 revealed the signature of a Union soldier from a New York unit. Greek Revival type is clear in fluted Doric porch columns. The “S” brackets in eaves and adorned window lintels mirror using numerous Victorian designs. Homes even have raised English basements.

140 Caroline
Within the 1920s, Dr. James Harrison joined a small 1830s brick home on the rear of the constructing to a bigger body construction constructed round 1870 on the entrance of the lot. The wraparound porch was additionally added by Harrison, whose household lived in the home till 1981. The home is conventional in type, derived from the late Georgian side-passage plan. Word easy cutout ornament at eaves.

200 Caroline
Inbuilt 1876. This home was used as a army faculty generally known as Phillips Academy within the late 1800s. The nook lot sits on a part of Roger Dixon’s home and property. Dixon, in response to data, constructed a home, retailer and quite a few outbuildings on the land and established a backyard and orchard. Ornament round chimney cap is a stylized late Gothic type which is typical of the 1880s. The chamfers and the straightforward Italianate moldings of porch capitals and wooden trim are typical of the post-Civil Conflict interval in Fredericksburg.

204 Caroline
Constructed c. 1900. This home is typical of the early 20th century Fredericksburg mixture of late Victorian Queen Anne type and Colonial Revival themes. These types are proven in diversified varieties and decorations. Additionally, notice the fascinating porch brackets which have been undoubtedly constructed in certainly one of Fredericksburg’s woodworking outlets.

206 Caroline
Constructed c. 1836 by outstanding grain service provider and ship proprietor Samuel Phillips. This home sits on the possible website of Roger Dixon’s house. This home is analogous in measurement to Dixon’s home, and it’s theorized that this home is analogous in type to Dixon’s home that burned. The unique central portion basis in Flemish bond brick and the beaded edge siding are clues to the early date of the home. Notice the normal segmental arch of the home windows and the handsomely carved trim within the eaves, the geometrically patterned transom, the previous porch steps, and ironwork. The sleeping porch was added within the early 20th century.

208 Caroline
Constructed c. 1891-96. Comparable in architectural conception to 204, this home makes use of robust dentil ornament and the highly effective strains of “German” siding to realize a press release of Queen Anne and Colonial Revival particulars. Word the patterned entrance door with its bevel edge plate glass.

210 Caroline
Constructed c. 1890-1900. The ornamental playfulness of the Swiss Chalet type launched to America within the 1850’s is sort of evident on this home. Observe the patterned shingles and stick ornament.

214 Caroline
This post-Revolutionary home, together with its neighbor at 216, was constructed as rental property by Dr.Charles Mortimer. The house is often related to Commodore Matthew Fontaine Maury, generally known as the “Pathfinder of the Seas.” Maury was instrumental in establishing the U.S. Naval Academy, the Naval Observatory, and the U.S. Climate Bureau. Maury and his household lived in the home through the Civil Warfare years, although he didn’t personal the home himself. He rented the house from a cousin. Though added to and altered through the years, 214 is one in every of a number of homes to retain the highly effective presence of a late Georgian brick home with comparatively small home windows underneath conventional segmented arches. Word the 1830s brick dependency, which was constructed as an workplace or store.

216 Caroline 
Constructed c. 1780, this home is similar to its neighbor at 214 and was additionally one of many homes Dr.Charles Mortimer constructed as rental properties. An 18th-century doctor, Lawrence Brooke, is claimed to have lived both on this home or 214 in the course of the late 1700s. Born in Spotsylvania County, Brooke was educated at Edinburgh School in Scotland. He sailed in 1779 with John Paul Jones on the “Bonne Homme Richard” as ship surgeon. Tax data point out that Brooke rented a home from Mortimer on Caroline Road between 1789-93 however don’t conclusively present whether or not it was 214 or 216 that he rented. This colonial construction retains wonderful 18th-century brickwork and 6 unique fireplaces. The home, Victorianized within the early 1900s, has been renovated extensively by the current house owners to mirror its unique fashion. Observe conventional segmental arch over home windows and handsomely carved trim in eaves.

300 Caroline
Constructed c. 1813. This home was used because the workplace of John William Inexperienced, native lawyer and decide of the Supreme Courtroom of Appeals. Inexperienced bought 216 Caroline in 1811 and shortly arrange his workplace on the lot throughout Princess Elizabeth Road. This home is of the late Federal type. Observe good-looking carved Greek Revival doorway and pair of carved stone rainwater basins.

304 Caroline
Constructed c.1782 by Revolutionary Struggle Captain William Lewis and enlarged to its current measurement in 1873 by William H. Smith, an area grocer. The home is of the Georgian custom, as seen within the patterned brickwork of the chimneys and the metalwork of the downspout heads. Observe the Colonial Revival porch with the slight swelling within the columns, copied from the Greek type.

306 Caroline
Constructed c.1850. This home was as soon as owned by George Henry Clay Rowe, a “gifted jurist, Democrat and Douglas elector” of Fredericksburg. Rowe, beneath Union Basic Pope’s orders, was one among 19 outstanding Fredericksburg residents arrested in August 1862 by Federal authorities. The arrests have been made in retaliation for the arrest of two Union males by Accomplice authorities. Pope, often known as a pompous commander, had equally arrested residents in Fauquier and Culpeper counties for his or her refusal to take the oath of allegiance to the U.S. authorities. The Fredericksburg residents have been despatched to Previous Capitol Jail in Washington, D.C. the place they have been held for six weeks. This home is a brick model of the Greek Revival townhouses seen at 130, 132, 134, 136 and 138. Word robust ornament, giant backyard and raised English basement.

201 Caroline
Constructed c. 1900. This Queen Anne Victorian/Colonial Revival home accommodates particulars generally discovered all through a lot of Fredericksburg structure. Word detailed roof strains and stained glass window in gables.

205 and 207 Caroline
These homes are situated on both aspect of Rocky Lane, an early by way of road resulting in the river. The top of Rocky Lane was the possible location of a pontoon bridge constructed by Union troopers in the course of the Civil Struggle. Common Burnside’s troops started developing the bridge throughout the Rappahannock on December 11, 1863, however have been hindered in 9 makes an attempt by Accomplice sharpshooters. Lastly, after the Confederates have been pushed again by heavy return hearth, Union troops superior, little question passing via the tons on which 205 and 207 stand. On 207, observe the pronounced Italianate particulars within the bracketed window hoods and round-arched home windows. Additionally, the ironwork on porches and balconies is sort of good-looking. Home 205 is an elaborate Italianate home with many bay home windows, brackets, paned home windows and using an asymmetrically positioned tower.

209 Caroline
Constructed c. 1789. This construction was initially constructed as a dependency to 211, the Goolrick-Caldwell Home. The constructing was initially a kitchen after which transformed to a schoolhouse earlier than it turned a residence. The unique constructing was the decrease brick portion. The primary flooring is Flemish bond hand-pressed brick and the second flooring and rear wing are early 20th century additions.

211 Caroline
Constructed c. 1789, this home is called the Goolrick-Caldwell Home. The home was purchased in 1804 by Professor John Goolrick, a outstanding Fredericksburg educator and citizen. Goolrick, who immigrated to Fredericksburg from Sligo, Eire, operated a faculty on the town for 45 years. Each Goolrick and John S. Caldwell, one other longtime resident of 211, served as metropolis mayors. This home is a picket model of the middle corridor Georgian plan and retains a lot of its unique beaded siding. An uncommon function of the home is the mixture of inside chimney on one finish of the construction with conventional Virginia exterior chimney on the opposite. The entrance stoop is a late 19th-century addition.

303 Caroline
Inbuilt 1801. Decide Joseph Jones, who lived at 301 Caroline, constructed this residence as a rental property. In 1797 tax data, the lot is designated as holding a tenement for Jones’ slaves. Dormer mild gambrel roof type typically conveys a colonial concept, however this early 19th-century documented home is a reminder of the continuation of that type into later years.

303 half Caroline
Constructed c.1907-12. This Victorian fashion townhouse is exclusive on decrease Caroline with its positioning on the road. The home appears outsized for the lot it stands upon. This home represents a particularly city type and makes use of Colonial Revival particulars, as seen within the brick and sample of trim within the arches. Though aspect home windows outline it as a townhouse, the home is just like row home varieties present in Richmond.

305 Caroline
Unique decrease portion constructed c. 1796-1803. Second story added in 1895. Owned within the late 18th and early 19th century by Dr. George French, who lived subsequent door, this home served as a kitchen and laundry. The home at this time accommodates a hearth mantel from 307 similar to at least one within the Mary Washington Home.

307 Caroline
This Georgian-style home was inbuilt sections. The entrance one and a half tales have been constructed previous to the Revolutionary Struggle. In 1795, the again wing was added, and round 1850, the second entrance story was accomplished. This home is most intently related to Dr. George French, who purchased the property in 1792. A Scotsman by delivery, French was a well-loved doctor and served as mayor of Fredericksburg for eight phrases. French’s lot on Caroline Road contained his home, his workplace constructing, and a lot of outbuildings, together with a duck home and a meat home. The property was amongst a number of of French’s holdings on the town, which additionally included a brewery. Within the mid-1800s, the home was bought by St. George’s Episcopal Church and used as a rectory for Edward C. McGuire, who served the Fredericksburg church for 45 years. Some 20th-century additions embrace the entrance door and upstairs window trim. The present house owners have enlarged the Victorian aspect porch. Notice using conventional Virginia chimney type with deep exterior hearth.

309 Caroline
Constructed c. 1890. Observe the low roof and colonial type of this home. It retains robust late American architectural particulars, such because the wealthy bracket ornament within the eaves and porch. Two giant panes in every window sash mirror an curiosity in giant panes seen within the late 19th and early 20th century.

Historical past of “Decrease Caroline”

The event of this good-looking previous road into probably the most sleek residential areas in Fredericksburg started with the imaginative and prescient of 18th-century lawyer and entrepreneur Roger Dixon. Dixon, who got here to the world in 1749 to apply regulation, quickly took an interest Fredericksburg actual property. In January 1752, he bought 330 acres outdoors the city’s decrease limits. Dixon’s buy encompassed the mouth of a Rappahannock River tributary, Hazel Run, and was throughout the river from George Washington’s boyhood house, Ferry Farm. Regardless of his enthusiasm for actual property hypothesis, no prospects materialized for the 40 tons Dixon had surveyed. Ads within the Virginia Gazette in 1752 and ’53 nonetheless didn’t appeal to consumers. Dixon persevered, nevertheless, constructing an property on 4 tons inside the tract and petitioning to have Caroline Road prolonged via the property.

By 1764, Dixon discovered himself in a monetary bind and held a lottery to encourage gross sales. Nearly all of the 33 tons bought have been bought by out-of-towners who had no intention of constructing on their land and growing worth of surrounding property. Nonetheless hoping to draw consumers to the road, Dixon constructed two homes in 1765 close to the previous part of city. When the homes didn’t promote, Dixon turned them into rental properties. Dixon additionally inspired his brother John to construct on the road.

The home, now 213 Caroline, was undoubtedly Roger’s in design and idea and might be thought-about his imaginative and prescient for the road. Regardless of his efforts, Dixon’s monetary state of affairs grew steadily worse. In 1768, he marketed to promote all his properties, and his brother John marketed the sale of the home he had constructed. Nothing bought. In 1771, Dixon bought one of many rental properties to a creditor, nevertheless it was too late. The subsequent yr, Dixon died, his property closely in debt. In 1773, Dr. Charles Mortimer purchased John Dixon’s home on Caroline Road and commenced a brand new period within the improvement of the neighborhood. Mortimer constructed as rental properties two homes, as we speak 214 and 216, that are among the many most good-looking on the road. With the prosperity following the Revolutionary Warfare, progress continued and Dixon’s heirs managed to promote a lot of the remaining property.

Later, within the Civil Warfare, Caroline Road was within the path of artillery hearth in the course of the Battle of Fredericksburg. With the bombardment of the city ordered by Union Basic Ambrose E. Burnside in December 1862, many homes suffered in depth injury from each Union and Accomplice artillery. Numerous homes have been occupied by troops and a number of other yards turned the ultimate resting place of Civil Warfare lifeless.

A part of Fredericksburg’s 40-block Nationwide Historic District, decrease Caroline Road right now is among the most gracious residential streets within the metropolis. Many architectural types are represented and the various combine creates a visually pleasing selection and provides to the individuality of the road.

Princess Anne and Sophia Streets

Princess Anne and Sophia Streets, neighbors to Caroline on the north and south, performed an necessary position within the improvement of decrease Caroline. Princess Anne offers an fascinating distinction each traditionally and architecturally. This portion of Princess Anne developed a lot later than Caroline and was much less densely populated.

Now primarily a residential space, the road initially held gardens, stables, and outbuildings serving the extra elegant houses on Caroline. And the place Caroline was the house to docs, legal professionals, retailers, and politicians, this portion of Princess Anne was house to Fredericksburg’s shopkeepers and artisans, together with a saddler and a cobbler. Architectural types range from late 18th- to mid-20th-century design. Most of the conventional varieties are just like these on Caroline however on a a lot smaller scale. Word the Greek Revival townhouse at 300; the 18th-century colonial with a rigorously executed addition at 227, initially a secure; and the early brick rowhouses at 314-320.

Then again, Sophia on the banks of the Rappahannock held, within the 18th century, docks, wharves, and warehouses of retailers and shipowners, lots of whom lived on Caroline above. Within the 1800s, Sophia’s focus turned extra industrial. A brewery, a pickle manufacturing unit, and a flour mill have been among the many manufactories lining decrease Sophia. Notice the pre-Revolutionary home at 208, recognized in native lore because the Ferry Toll Keeper’s Home; the straightforward cottage at 210, moved to this website in 1973, referred to as Ann’s Ark; and the 1876 warehouse, the Fee Home, the place dry items have been bought by a fee agent.

The 100 Block of Caroline Road

The decrease 100 block of Caroline Road (not proven on map) was not a part of Roger Dixon’s unique holding and developed a lot later. Most homes within the space date to the early 20th century and are typical of the houses of tradesmen, shopkeepers, and craftsmen in the course of the interval 1880-1920. Observe the similar buildings at 122, 124, and 126. This portion of the road additionally accommodates the primary stuccoed home in Fredericksburg (109, inbuilt 1912) and the primary shingled home within the metropolis (111, inbuilt 1920). Additionally of curiosity is 103, which was constructed within the early 19th century. Through the 1800s, this finish of Caroline was the location of a steamboat dock.

The Fredericksburg Practice Station

Whereas the Rappahannock River undoubtedly was a significant factor in Fredericksburg’s early progress, the railroad helped spur one other growth within the 1800s. The Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad accomplished strains from Richmond to Fredericksburg by 1837, to Aquia Creek by 1842, and the road to Washington in 1872. This not solely offered an thrilling and novel technique of transportation and delivery however as soon as once more established Fredericksburg as a serious hyperlink between North and South. Through the Civil Struggle, although, the rail line suffered for its significance. The rail line was invaluable to each Union and Accomplice methods, and passage was interrupted regularly as armies destroyed and rebuilt monitor sections between Northern and Southern capitals. Fredericksburg, halfway between Richmond and Washington, D.C. was a focus for each armies. The current Georgian Revival fashion station was constructed in 1910. With the opening of a brand new bridge throughout the Rappahannock within the 1920s, the monitor on the station was raised above road degree to its current peak. Throughout World Struggle II, passenger quantity peaked. At the moment, with a decline in rail journey, Fredericksburg’s passenger station is comparatively quiet, serving as a flagstop for Amtrak trains.

301 Caroline
Constructed between 1784 and 1786. This was initially the house of Decide Joseph Jones, uncle of James Monroe, our nation’s fifth president. A outstanding lawyer in Fredericksburg, Jones served as a member of the Virginia Home of Burgesses, Congress, and was a serious basic within the Virginia Militia. Following the recommendation of Jones, Monroe got here to Fredericksburg and established his regulation follow. Monroe bought a home on the town, however, by invitation, he and his spouse lived in Jones’ home on Caroline Road from 1786-90.
Whereas in Fredericksburg, Monroe served on Metropolis Council and the Board of the Fredericksburg Academy. After his defeat within the election for the brand new U.S. Congress, Monroe left Fredericksburg and continued his illustrious profession in politics and diplomacy. The home is Georgian in type and was utterly restored in 1958-59 to retain its 18th-century look. Previous to the Civil Warfare, the home was raised to 3 tales, and the stucco facade was added. The window trim is a later addition.

133 Caroline
Inbuilt 1786 by Revolutionary Conflict Common George Weedon, this mid-Georgian type home, often known as “The Sentry Field”, is among the many most extensively restored on the road. Situated on a excessive financial institution overlooking the Rappahannock, Weedon thought his box-shaped home seemed like a sentry, from which the home’s identify finds its origin.

The location was initially obtained in 1764 via lottery by Weedon and his brother-in-law, Hugh Mercer. With Mercer’s demise in 1777 on the Battle of Princeton, Weedon turned sole proprietor of the land, and he and his spouse accepted Mercer’s household into their residence and raised the youngsters as their very own. At Weedon’s dying, the home was willed to Mercer’s eldest son, William.

Weedon was an lively citizen all through his life. He served as Fredericksburg’s first postmaster, later was mayor, and with George Washington, and helped manage the Virginia Society of the Cincinnati, a fraternity of Revolutionary Struggle officers. Though the home was broken by Union artillery in the course of the Battle of Fredericksburg, the home remained intact because of the friendship of Union Basic Ambrose E. Burnside and Accomplice Captain Roy Mason, classmates at West Level. Mason stories discovering a number of lifeless Union troopers on the grounds and inside the home. Word the tall roundhead home windows of the primary flooring north gable, superb dentiled cornice, copy of unique colonial ice home, and late 18th-century kitchen which was transformed to a visitor home.

213 Caroline
Inbuilt 1764, this home is the oldest remaining unique construction on the road. In an effort to draw consumers to his Caroline Road tons, Roger Dixon developed his personal property extensively and persuaded his brother John to buy 4 tons as nicely. Despite the fact that John lived in Williamsburg and didn’t intend to maneuver to Fredericksburg, he constructed this home underneath Roger’s path. This elegant Georgian-style brick home was Roger’s imaginative and prescient of how the road ought to develop, a prototype of design.

4 years later, after Roger’s demise, John marketed the home on the market. Dr. Charles Mortimer purchased the home in 1772. Mortimer, doctor to George Washington’s mom, Mary, and first mayor of Fredericksburg, was a staunch patriot as properly. In 1766, amid rising hostilities towards England and its monarchy, Mortimer signed the Westmoreland Resolutions in protest of suppression of civil liberties. Mortimer constructed a number of homes on Caroline Road and doubtless was most influential to the path additional improvement on decrease Caroline would take. Word the carriage steps and hitching publish of native sandstone and unique chimneys and roof strains. Entrance porch is Greek Revival in type and a 20th-century addition. Of particular discover is the luxurious high quality of the iron fence within the entrance yard.

See enlarged view of Decrease Caroline Road and the homes mentioned on this tour.


Analysis and textual content by Susan Loyd. Architectural notes by John N. Pearce. Because of Barbara P. Willis and Paula S. Felder for analysis help.

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